The Megafaunal Fruits dataset page

This is the page for the Megafaunal Fruits database, a large dataset of fleshy fruit traits compiled for my collaborative work with Paulo R. Guimarães Jr. and Mauro Galetti. Data are provided for more than 100 plant species, mainly from Brazilian habitats.

Please, e-mail me ( ) if you are interested in getting additional details. Or write to the postal address:

Pedro Jordano
Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC
Pab. Perú, Avda. M. Luisa S/N
E-41013 Sevilla, Spain

Brief description | Variable names and descriptions | Reference list | Contacting| Acknowledgements | History| Download the Data files

Brief description

VERSION 1.0. December 2004.

This dataset accompanies our recent work on megafauna-dispersed fruit species, now in review. We'll update the dataset information as soon as the ms is formally accepted. My previous work on this topic has concentrated on analyses for the whole Angiosperm clade. Recently I'm collaborating with Mauro Galetti and Marco A. Pizo, involving comparative analyses restricted to the tropical families Arecaceae and Myrtaceae, as well as the fruit communities of Mata Atlantica forests and Pantanal. Together with Paulo R. Guimarães Jr., Mauro and I are also analyzing the comparative ecology of the so-called anachronic seed dispersal systems, i.e., plant species with overbuilt fruits supposedly dispersed by an extinct megafauna and not having present-day interactions with frugivorous animals. These fruit species have seriously altered seed dispersal systems.


Guimarães Jr., P., Galetti, M. and Jordano, P. 2006. Seed dispersal anachronisms: rethinking the fruits extinct megafauna ate. In 2nd review, April 2006.

It contains a copy of the main data file exactly as used for this paper, as well as other accompanying files (see below).

Taxonomic arrangement follows:
Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press.

Plant names and names of higher taxonomic categories have been checked with:
Mabberley, D.J. 1987. The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Please, contact me if you have suggestions, find errors, inconsistencies, or any other bug in the file. As well, please let me know about your uses of this data and send manuscripts and reprints when available. I´ll be happy to help you in any case, as far as I can.


Variable names in the Megafaunal Fruits Dataset

CL Class
SCL SubClass
ORD Order
FAM Family
GEN Genus
SP Species

REF Reference number - This is my maintenance code for updates.
NEWREF New Reference number - These are the refs numbers in the files REFS and SUMMARY.
FAMLAB Family Label - An 8-character label for family.
GENLAB Genus Label - An 8-character label for genus.
SPLAB Species Label - An 8-character label for species.
COD Species code - A 5-character code for the species.
DISPCAT Disperser type category - BIRDS, MIXED, MAMMALS.
DISP Disperser type - Finer categorization. Not yet completed. Needs revision.
AREA Geographic area - Major geographic areas of the data sources.
MEurope: Mediterranean Europe (also includes Israel and Morocco.
NEurope: Temperate and Northern Europe.
NAmerica: North America, excl. Southern Mexico.
NTAmerica: Neotropical America, incl. Southern Mexico.
Africa: Africa, south of Sahara.
Australasia: Australia, Malaysia, New Guinea, and whole SouthEast Asia.

FRUIT Fruit type - Type of fruit. Not completed yet. Needs revision.
LENG Fruit length (mm)
DIAM Fruit diameter (mm)
FRFM Fruit fresh mass (g)
PDM Dry mass of pulp per fruit (g)
SDM Dry mass of seed(s) per fruit (g)
SEEDS Number of seeds per fruit
SEEDM Seed dry mass (g)
RY Relative yield of pulp (PDM/FRFM*100)
KJG Specific energy content of pulp (kJ/g)
KJFR Total energy content per fruit (kJ)
PCW Percent water content of fruit
LIP Proportion of lipids (per g dry pulp)
PRO Proportion of protein (per g dry pulp)
NSC Proportion of non-structural carbohydrates (per g dry pulp)
ASH Proportion of minerals (per g dry pulp)
FIB Proportion of acid-detergent fiber (per g dry pulp)


This is the species list for the dataset, as December 2004.

ANACARDIACEAE Anacardium giganteum
Anacardium occidentale
Poupartia amazonica
Spondias tuberosa
ANNONACEAE Annona cacans
Annona coriacea
Annona crassiflora
Annona densicoma
Annona montana
Annona muricata
Rollinia mucosa
APOCYNACEAE Ambelania acida
BOMBACACEAE Quararibea cordata
BROMELIACEAE Ananas ananassoides
Ananas comosus
CARYOCARACEAE Caryocar brasiliense
Caryocar microcarpum
Caryocar villosum
CHRYSOBALANACEAE Couepia bracteosa
Couepia subcordata
Licania tomentosa
Parinari montana
FLACOURTIACEAE Carpotroche brasiliensis
GUTTIFERAE Platonia insignis
Rheedia acuminata
Rheedia macrophylla
HIPPOCRATEACEAE Salacia crassifolia
HUMIRIACEAE Duckesia verrucosa
Endopleura uchi
ICACINACEAE Poraqueiba paraensis
Poraqueiba sericea
LAURACEAE Persea americana
LECYTHIDACEAE Couroupita guianensis
LEGUMINOSAE Andira anthelmia
Andira humilis
Andira legalis
Cassia leiandra
Dipterix alata
Dipterix odorata
Geoffroea striata
Hymenaea courbaril
Hymenaea stigonocarpa
Inga alba
Inga cinnamomea
Inga edulis
Inga fagifolia
Inga falcistipula
Inga heterophyla
Inga laurina
Inga macrophylla
Inga marginata
Inga sessilis
Inga thibaudiana
Inga velutina
Swartzia langsdorfii
Swartzia macrostachya
Swartzia oblata
MYRTACEAE Eugenia cambucarana
Eugenia klotzschiana
Eugenia neoverrucosa
Eugenia stipitata
ARECACEAE Acrocomia aculeata
Acrocomia intumescens
Allagoptera arenaria
Allagoptera leucocalyx
Astrocaryum aculeatissimum
Astrocaryum aculeatum
Astrocaryum murumuru
Astrocaryum vulgare
Attalea dahlgreniana
Attalea dubia
Manicaria saccifera
Mauritia carana
Mauritia flexuosa
Maximiliana maripa
Polyandrococos caudescens
Scheelea phanerata
Syagrus cearensis
Syagrus cocoides
Syagrus macrocarpa
Syagrus oleracea
Syagrus picrophylla
Syagrus pseudococos
QUINIIACEAE Lacunaria grandiflora
Lacunaria jenmani
RUBIACEAE Genipa americana
SAPOTACEAE Achras sapota
Pouteria caimito
Pouteria grandiflora
Pouteria macrocarpa
Pouteria macrophylla
Pouteria pachycalyx
Pouteria pariry
Pouteria ramiflora
Pouteria speciosa
Pouteria torta
Pouteria venosa
Duckeodendron cestroides
Solanum licocarpum
STERCULIACEAE Theobroma bicolor
Theobroma cacao
Theobroma grandiflorum
Theobroma obovatum
Theobroma subincanum


Contact me at:

Pedro Jordano
Integrative Ecology Group
Estación Biologica de Donana, CSIC
Pabellón del Peru, Avda. M. Luisa, S/N
41013 Sevilla, Spain

Phone: +34 5 4232340 ext 213 (voice)
+34 5 4621125 (fax)
+34 5 4270463 (home, voice)

We are grateful to Camila Donatti, Marco A. Pizo, Jordi Bascompte, Daniel Janzen, John Alroy, Peter Mann de Toledo, Ove Eriksson, and students of the 1st Latin American course on Frugivory and Seed Dispersal (2002) for discussions and comments about megafaunal fruits and suggestions that helped us in many ways. We thank Connie Barlow and Carlos Yamashita for their help at various stages of this project. The study was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (BOS2000-1366-C02-01) to PJ, CNPq (Bolsa de Produtividade), FAPESP, FUNDUNESP and IFS to MG and FAPESP to PRG (01/1737-3); our collaboration was also funded by CYTED and a CNPq-CSIC agreement.


version 0.0.- 15 April 2003. Only 92 species.
version 0.5 - 23 September 2003. Added many species with information on fruit size only and completed the literature survey; 104 species.

version 1.0 - 11 December 2004. First draft of the web page.

Best wishes, and happy computing!

green ballTHE DATA FILES

To download these files, click and hold on the filename and choose 'Save link to disk...'.

Macintosh version

DOS-Wintel version

Last Updated: Monday, 6 March, 2006 4:02 PM
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